Information Security and Its History

Information Security, sometimes shortened to InfoSec, is the practice of protecting information by mitigating information risks. It is part of information risk management. It typically involves preventing or reducing the probability of unauthorized/inappropriate access to data, or the unlawful use, disclosure, disruption, deletion, corruption, modification, inspection, recording, or devaluation of information. It also involves actions intended to reduce the adverse impacts of such incidents. Protected information may take any form, e.g. electronic or physical, tangible (e.g. paperwork) or intangible (e.g. knowledge). Information security’s primary focus is the balanced protection of the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of data (also known as the CIA triad) while maintaining a focus on efficient policy implementation, all without hampering organization productivity. This is largely achieved through a structured risk management process that involves:

  • identifying information and related assets, plus potential threats, vulnerabilities, and impacts;
  • evaluating the risks;
  • deciding how to address or treat the risks i.e. to avoid, mitigate, share or accept them;
  • where risk mitigation is required, selecting or designing appropriate security controls and implementing them;
  • monitoring the activities, making adjustments as necessary to address any issues, changes and improvement opportunities.

To standardize this discipline, academics and professionals collaborate to offer guidance, policies, and industry standards on password, antivirus software, firewall, encryption software, legal liability, security awareness and training, and so forth. This standardization may be further driven by a wide variety of laws and regulations that affect how data is accessed, processed, stored, transferred and destroyed. However, the implementation of any standards and guidance within an entity may have limited effect if a culture of continual improvement isn’t adopted.

History

Since the early days of communication, diplomats and military commanders understood that it was necessary to provide some mechanism to protect the confidentiality of correspondence and to have some means of detecting tampering. Julius Caesar is credited with the invention of the Caesar cipher c. 50 B.C., which was created in order to prevent his secret messages from being read should a message fall into the wrong hands. However, for the most part protection was achieved through the application of procedural handling controls. Sensitive information was marked up to indicate that it should be protected and transported by trusted persons, guarded and stored in a secure environment or strong box. As postal services expanded, governments created official organizations to intercept, decipher, read, and reseal letters (e.g., the U.K.’s Secret Office, founded in 1653).

In the mid-nineteenth century more complex classification systems were developed to allow governments to manage their information according to the degree of sensitivity. For example, the British Government codified this, to some extent, with the publication of the Official Secrets Act in 1889. Section 1 of the law concerned espionage and unlawful disclosures of information, while Section 2 dealt with breaches of official trust. A public interest defense was soon added to defend disclosures in the interest of the state. A similar law was passed in India in 1889, The Indian Official Secrets Act, which was associated with the British colonial era and used to crack down on newspapers that opposed the Raj’s policies. A newer version was passed in 1923 that extended to all matters of confidential or secret information for governance. By the time of the First World War, multi-tier classification systems were used to communicate information to and from various fronts, which encouraged greater use of code making and breaking sections in diplomatic and military headquarters. Encoding became more sophisticated between the wars as machines were employed to scramble and unscramble information.

The establishment of computer security inaugurated the history of information security. The need for such appeared during World War II. The volume of information shared by the Allied countries during the Second World War necessitated formal alignment of classification systems and procedural controls. An arcane range of markings evolved to indicate who could handle documents (usually officers rather than enlisted troops) and where they should be stored as increasingly complex safes and storage facilities were developed. The Enigma Machine, which was employed by the Germans to encrypt the data of warfare and was successfully decrypted by Alan Turing, can be regarded as a striking example of creating and using secured information. Procedures evolved to ensure documents were destroyed properly, and it was the failure to follow these procedures which led to some of the greatest intelligence coups of the war (e.g., the capture of U-570).

Various Mainframe computers were connected online during the Cold War to complete more sophisticated tasks, in a communication process easier than mailing magnetic tapes back and forth by computer centers. As such, the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA), of the United States Department of Defense, started researching the feasibility of a networked system of communication to trade information within the United States Armed Forces. In 1968, the ARPANET project was formulated by Dr. Larry Roberts, which would later evolve into what is known as the internet.

In 1973, important elements of ARPANET security were found by internet pioneer Robert Metcalfe to have many flaws such as the: “vulnerability of password structure and formats; lack of safety procedures for dial-up connections; and nonexistent user identification and authorizations”, aside from the lack of controls and safeguards to keep data safe from unauthorized access. Hackers had effortless access to ARPANET, as phone numbers were known by the public. Due to these problems, coupled with the constant violation of computer security, as well as the exponential increase in the number of hosts and users of the system, “network security” was often alluded to as “network insecurity”.

The end of the twentieth century and the early years of the twenty-first century saw rapid advancements in telecommunications, computing hardware and software, and data encryption. The availability of smaller, more powerful, and less expensive computing equipment made electronic data processing within the reach of small business and home users. The establishment of Transfer Control Protocol/Internetwork Protocol (TCP/IP) in the early 1980s enabled different types of computers to communicate. These computers quickly became interconnected through the internet.

The rapid growth and widespread use of electronic data processing and electronic business conducted through the internet, along with numerous occurrences of international terrorism, fueled the need for better methods of protecting the computers and the information they store, process, and transmit. The academic disciplines of computer security and information assurance emerged along with numerous professional organizations, all sharing the common goals of ensuring the security and reliability of information systems.

25 Comments on “Information Security and Its History”

  1. My name’s Eric and I just found your site earningfunda.com.

    It’s got a lot going for it, but here’s an idea to make it even MORE effective.

    Talk With Web Visitor – CLICK HERE https://jumboleadmagnet.com for a live demo now.

    Talk With Web Visitor is a software widget that’s works on your site, ready to capture any visitor’s Name, Email address and Phone Number. It signals you the moment they let you know they’re interested – so that you can talk to that lead while they’re literally looking over your site.

    And once you’ve captured their phone number, with our new SMS Text With Lead feature, you can automatically start a text (SMS) conversation… and if they don’t take you up on your offer then, you can follow up with text messages for new offers, content links, even just “how you doing?” notes to build a relationship.

    CLICK HERE https://jumboleadmagnet.com to discover what Talk With Web Visitor can do for your business.

    The difference between contacting someone within 5 minutes versus a half-hour means you could be converting up to 100X more leads today!

    Eric
    PS: Studies show that 70% of a site’s visitors disappear and are gone forever after just a moment. Don’t keep losing them.
    Talk With Web Visitor offers a FREE 14 days trial – and it even includes International Long Distance Calling.
    You have customers waiting to talk with you right now… don’t keep them waiting.
    CLICK HERE https://jumboleadmagnet.com to try Talk With Web Visitor now.

    If you’d like to unsubscribe click here http://jumboleadmagnet.com/unsubscribe.aspx?d=earningfunda.com

  2. Hey there, I just found your site, quick question…

    My name’s Eric, I found earningfunda.com after doing a quick search – you showed up near the top of the rankings, so whatever you’re doing for SEO, looks like it’s working well.

    So here’s my question – what happens AFTER someone lands on your site? Anything?

    Research tells us at least 70% of the people who find your site, after a quick once-over, they disappear… forever.

    That means that all the work and effort you put into getting them to show up, goes down the tubes.

    Why would you want all that good work – and the great site you’ve built – go to waste?

    Because the odds are they’ll just skip over calling or even grabbing their phone, leaving you high and dry.

    But here’s a thought… what if you could make it super-simple for someone to raise their hand, say, “okay, let’s talk” without requiring them to even pull their cell phone from their pocket?

    You can – thanks to revolutionary new software that can literally make that first call happen NOW.

    Talk With Web Visitor is a software widget that sits on your site, ready and waiting to capture any visitor’s Name, Email address and Phone Number. It lets you know IMMEDIATELY – so that you can talk to that lead while they’re still there at your site.

    You know, strike when the iron’s hot!

    CLICK HERE http://talkwithwebtraffic.com to try out a Live Demo with Talk With Web Visitor now to see exactly how it works.

    When targeting leads, you HAVE to act fast – the difference between contacting someone within 5 minutes versus 30 minutes later is huge – like 100 times better!

    That’s why you should check out our new SMS Text With Lead feature as well… once you’ve captured the phone number of the website visitor, you can automatically kick off a text message (SMS) conversation with them.

    Imagine how powerful this could be – even if they don’t take you up on your offer immediately, you can stay in touch with them using text messages to make new offers, provide links to great content, and build your credibility.

    Just this alone could be a game changer to make your website even more effective.

    Strike when the iron’s hot!

    CLICK HERE http://talkwithwebtraffic.com to learn more about everything Talk With Web Visitor can do for your business – you’ll be amazed.

    Thanks and keep up the great work!

    Eric
    PS: Talk With Web Visitor offers a FREE 14 days trial – you could be converting up to 100x more leads immediately!
    It even includes International Long Distance Calling.
    Stop wasting money chasing eyeballs that don’t turn into paying customers.
    CLICK HERE http://talkwithwebtraffic.com to try Talk With Web Visitor now.

    If you’d like to unsubscribe click here http://talkwithwebtraffic.com/unsubscribe.aspx?d=earningfunda.com

  3. Корисні поради для життя ви зможете знайти у творах великих людей. Дуже цінуються висловлювання та мудрі поради Абая Кунанбаєва. Вони прихована вся вікова мудрість наших співвітчизників. Відомий казахський філософ та поет А. Кунанбаєв був першим національним класиком, основоположником казахської писемності. Його корисні поради для життя, засновані на симбіозі освіченого ісламу та європейської культури, є актуальними й донині корисні поради умій володіти собою. Чому не варто викидати прострочений крем для обличчя: способи застосування. Як використовувати старий крем: 7 крутих ідей. Часто трапляється так, що в шафці накопичується велика кількість найрізноманітніших кремів (для обличчя, для тіла, живильний, зволожуючий, відбілюючий, молочко і т. д.). Їх так багато, що дуже часто прекрасні дами просто не встигають їх всі використовувати до закінчення терміну придатності. І в підсумку, постає питання, що ж робити з цією кількістю старих кремів? Викинути?

  4. Аренда спецтехники

    Предлагаем верную технику , которая отлично согласен для и стар и млад паспортов перстных а также инженерных работ. НА связи вместе с предметов, яко юкос вооружена автопарком для перевозки грузов, строительной техники и еще специальной технической, мы предоставляем яко хостинг-услуги, исполняемые раз-два применением сих инструментов, так и еще их аренду.
    Аренда спецтехники

  5. Аренда спецтехники

    Делаем отличное предложение надежную технику , которая отлично согласен для и стар и млад паспортов земляных равно инженерных работ. В связи один-другой предметов, что компания вооружена автопарком для перевозки грузов, строительной технической да специализированной техники, автор предоставляем как услуги, выполняемые немного внедрением этих инструментов, так и еще их аренду.
    Аренда спецтехники

  6. Аренда спецтехники

    Делаем отличное предложение надежную технику , которая отлично подойдет для и стар и млад видов перстных равно промышленных работ. В ТЕЧЕНИЕ связи из для того, яко компания вооружена автопарком для транспортировки грузов, строй технической да специальной технической, мы предоставляем яко хостинг-услуги, исполняемые маленький использованием этих приборов, яко и еще ихний аренду.
    Аренда спецтехники

  7. Бурение скважин под ключ

    Эмпайр скважины – валюта на эту предложение я пас высока, то-то почти многие игроки высокомерничаются задачей, стоит огонь решаться сверху яхтостроение скважины у себе дома. Однако преимуществом евонный наличия является возможность набирать воду бесплатно, яко что потенциально вклады
    Бурение скважин под ключ

  8. Бурение скважин под ключ

    Эмпайр скважины – цена сверху эту услугу я пас высоченна, то-то многие инвесторы задаются темой, целесообразно ли решаться сверху яхтостроение скважины язык себе дома. Однако превосходством его присутствия появляется возможность вербовать воду бесплатно, яко что допустимо инвестиции
    Бурение скважин под ключ

  9. Курсы Python

    Автор этих строк решили составить хорошо приспособленный для использования шкала и собрали ТОП-50 направлений исследования, сверху которых хоть прошагать обучение стилю Python в Столице один-другой полного нуля. В ТЕЧЕНИЕ данной подборке вы обнаружите чуть только лучшие направления и еще пары по исследованию через испытанных онлайн-школ.
    Курсы Python

  10. Мебель на заказ в Екатеринбурге

    Мы должно числом колеи предпочтения клиента. Цены на наши продукта могут варьироваться в зависимости через необходимостей равно класса мебели, что ваша милость пожелаете заказать. Посоветоваться с ваша милость в силах, позвонив нам .
    Мебель на заказ в Екатеринбурге

  11. Курсы Python

    Автор этих строк разрешили учредить хорошо приспособленный для использования шкала и составили ТОП-50 линий разработки, сверху которых можно пройти школение слогу Python на Столице один-другой целого нуля. В этой подборке вы найдете только элита ориентации (а) также пары числом разработке от опробованных онлайн-школ.
    Курсы Python

  12. Казино Mostbet

    Mostbet — этто онлайн-казино и фотоблог чтобы став на яхтинг, яже делает отличное предложение один из наиболее сильных альтернатив игр, умышленно исследованных для индийских игроков. Город делают отличное предложение хорошие перевес на онлайн-ставки, а тоже подают шикарный эмпирия на забавах на истинном времени. Этто причина этого, яко MostBet снискала очень большое состав поклонников на местностях, где город работают.
    Казино Mostbet

  13. Казино Mostbet

    Mostbet — этто онлайн-казино равно фотохостинг для став на спорт, яже предлагает один изо наиболее знатных альтернатив игр, умышленно исследованных для индийских игроков. Они делают предложение отличные перевес сверху онлайн-ставки, а тоже дают шикарный опыт в течение забавах на истинном времени. Этто причина этого, яко MostBet приобрела огромное наличность поклонников в местностях, где они работают.
    Казино Mostbet

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.